Diabetes Mellitus: Treatment Today, Prospects for Tomorrow

November 14 is World Diabetes Day. This is a reason to think about how things are with its spread in Russia and globally, how dangerous this disease is and what scientists are doing to understand it better and thus improve treatment methods.

Why November 14? The fact is that it was on this day that Frederick Grant Banting was born, who in 1922, together with Charles Herbert Best, discovered insulin, a drug that saves the lives of people with diabetes. In his recent honour, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established this day in 1991 to symbolize the growing incidence of diabetes globally.

Russia: one in ten

Diabetes new Mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin, which leads to a violation of carbon metabolism and, as a result, imbalance of all types of metabolism in the body. It is the leading unknown cause of death from cardiovascular disease, blindness and lower limb amputation.

There is insulin-dependent, or type I diabetes, and insulin-dependent, it’s type II diabetes. Type I diabetes is commonly suffered by young people under the age of 30. One of the reasons is the body’s production of antibodies that affect the pancreas cells responsible for insulin synthesis. It is a new chronic disease that requires constant insulin injections.

Type II diabetes affects the older generation. In such patients, the pancreas cells produce a sufficient amount of insulin, but the body’s sensitivity to it is reduced. The main risk factors for this type of diabetes are obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. Today, almost one in 10 Russians have diabetes. Still, more than half of patients do not know about their disease, – says Ivan Dedov, President of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academician of RAS and RAMN, President of the Russian Association of Endocrinologists. “According to the Russian state register of diabetics, the prevalence of type II diabetes in Russia is 3.2%, while, according to the IDF, this figure in the world is almost three times higher and is 8.3%, and in Russia, it can reach 9.7%.”

Undoubtedly, domestic medical institutions should more actively inform us about the problem of diabetes. Now the Russian Diabetes Association is more puzzled by this. “We want to attract the attention of the public, talk about prevention and the need for regular monitoring of their health, especially for people at risk,” says Valentina Peterkova, President of the Russian Diabetes Association, Director of the Institute of Pediatric Endocrinology, member-correspondent rain.

You can’t do without insulin yet.

Its timely appointment avoids the development of serious complications. Today, most modern insulins are analogue. The action mechanism is closer to human insulin but is safer and better tolerated than other insulin types. Analogue insulins help to compensate for diabetes with a low risk of hypoglycemia. This year, Russia began the production of innovative insulins on a complete cycle. In Orla, the Sanofi plant began producing human genetically engineered insulin and analogues of human insulin. Both are in the forms of short and prolonged action, which is very important for patients who have built their lives according to the particular insulin duration, which they are treated for many years.

Meanwhile, humanity is waiting for the development of radically new methods to combat SD.

Three million seven hundred seventy-nine thousand four hundred twenty-three diabetic patients were registered in Russia as of January 1, 2013, of which 325,743 were patients with type I diabetes and 3,453,680 patients with type II SD.

Figure

According to the State Register

Diabetes and cancer – treatment are compatible.

Scientists at Stanford University’s Med School have found that the anti-cancer drug aflibercept prevents blood vessels from growing into tumours and deprives them of oxygen, simultaneously reducing sugar levels. Experiments with mice and patient observations proved this. The mechanism is this: with the introduction of the drug, liver cells and tumours lacking oxygen and as compensation begin to produce a specific protein HIF-2 alpha. It activates the synthesis and release of the insulin receptor into the bloodstream. In turn, that enhances the ability of cells to respond to insulin and increase the tolerability of sugar.

Treatment of diabetes by light

Biologists from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), led by Martin Fussenegger, conducted experiments on diabetic mice, introducing them to a gene that responds to the work of light-sensitive pigment from the human retina. Then they illuminated the dwelling of the guinea pigs with blue light. And later held a glowing fibre to genetically modified cells. In both cases, the sugar level dropped sharply to normal.

You still have to follow a diet.

Yes, any restriction – is unpleasant, but in the case of diabetes, culinary diversity should be reduced to protect yourself from many ailments.

Diabetes is recommended:

1. Skimmed dairy products: milk, kefir, cottage cheese.

2.Vegetables: eggplant, peas, courgettes, white cabbage and cauliflower, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, bell peppers, root parsley, tomatoes, rhubarb, radishes, turnips, lettuce, beetroot, celery, soy, asparagus, topinambur, pumpkin, beans, garlic, spinach.

3.Fruits and berries: iva, barberry, cranberry, cherry, pears, strawberries, strawberries, cranberries, gooseberries, raspberries, ash, all kinds of currants, apples.

4.Meat and poultry: chicken, rabbit, veal, lamb, lean pork.

5.Low-fat sea fish.

6.Bread: rye and bran (the amount of bread – no more than 150 g per day).

7.Krupa: buckwheat and oatmeal (50-60 g per day).

8.Fats: creamy and vegetable oil (50-70 g, depending on body weight).

9.Foods from soy.

*http://mednews.stanford.edu/

**Science 24, Vol. 332 no. 6037 pp. 1565-1568, June 2011

E. Andreeva, A. Neganova, N. Levanova “Popular Diagnostic Handbook”, OLMA Media Group, 2007

Problems with an erection in diabetes

Erectile dysfunction (Et) is one of the latest common complications of diabetes. But it not only complicates sex but is also the first manifestation of atherosclerosis. Fifty-seven per cent of men who underwent aortic coronary bypass surgery and 64% had a heart attack before suffered from ED. To the Viagra came the longer action funds’ aid – “Cialis” and “Levitra.” But for patients with type II diabetes and these drugs is not enough: a combination therapy using male sex hormones (androgens) is needed.

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